Vegeto-vascular dystonia. Symptoms. Diagnosis. Treatment. Prevention.

Vegeto-vascular dystonia (VVD) - the diverse clinical manifestations of symptoms affecting various organs and systems and developing as a result of abnormalities in the structure and function of the central and / or peripheral autonomic nervous system.

Vegeto-vascular dystonia - not an independent nosological form, but in combination with other contributory factors, it can promote the development of many diseases and pathological conditions, often having a psychosomatic component (arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, asthma, peptic ulcer, etc.). Autonomic changes determine the development and course of many diseases of childhood. In turn, the somatic and any other diseases can exacerbate autonomic disorders.

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Symptoms of vascular dystonia detected in 25-80% of children, primarily among urban residents. They can be found in any age period, but more often observed in children 7-8 years and adolescents. Most often this syndrome is observed in girls.

Vegeto-vascular dystonia. Causes.

The reasons for the formation of vegetative disorders are numerous. The main importance are the primary, inherited due to abnormalities in the structure and functions of various divisions of the autonomic nervous system, often traced through the maternal line. Other factors tend to play the role of triggers that cause the manifestation already existing latent autonomic dysfunction.
The formation of vegetative-vascular dystonia have contributed significantly to perinatal CNS, leading to cerebral vascular disorders, liquorodynamics, hydrocephalus, damage to the hypothalamus and other parts of limbic-reticular complex. Damage to the central parts of the autonomic nervous system leads to emotional imbalance, neurotic and psychotic disorders in children, inadequate responses to stressful situations, which also influences the formation and course of vascular dystonia.
In the development of vascular dystonia is very large role of various traumatic effects (conflict situations in the family, school, family alcoholism, broken families, isolation, excessive protection of the child or his parents), leading to psychological maladjustment of children, contributing to the implementation and strengthening of autonomic disorders. Equally important are repetitive acute emotional overload, chronic stress, mental tension.

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By provoking factors include a variety of somatic, endocrine and neurological diseases, abnormalities of the constitution, allergic conditions, adverse or drastically changing weather conditions, especially climate, ecological trouble, upsetting the balance of trace elements, physical inactivity or excessive physical stress, hormonal changes of puberty, failure to comply with diet and etc.

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The unquestionable importance are age-appropriate rate of maturation of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system instability metabolism of the brain, as well as the child's inherent body the ability to develop generalized reactions in response to local irritation, which determines a higher polymorphism and the severity of syndrome in children compared to adults. Violations arising from the autonomic nervous system, leading to various changes in the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in violation of the allocation of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, acetylcholine), adrenal cortex hormones and other endocrine glands, a number of biologically active substances (polypeptides, prostaglandins), as well as to violations sensitivity of vascular a-and ß-adrenergic receptors.

This is a great diversity and varying severity of subjective and objective manifestations of vegetative-vascular dystonia in children and adolescents, depending on the age of the child. Autonomic changes they are often multi-organ nature of the predominance of dysfunction in any one system, often in the cardiovascular.

Classification of vegetative-vascular dystonia

To date, standard classification vegetative-vascular dystonia has not been developed. In formulating the diagnosis into account:
etiological factors;
variant of autonomic disorders (vagotonichesky, sympathicotonic, mixed);
prevalence of autonomic disorders (generalized, systemic or local form);
of the organs most involved in the pathological process;
functional state of the autonomic nervous system;
severity (mild, mid-weight, heavy);
nature of the flow (latent, permanent, paroxysmal).

Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia

For vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by multiple, often bright subjective symptoms that do not meet much less pronounced objective manifestations of any organ pathology. The clinical picture of vascular dystonia is largely dependent on the direction of autonomic disorders (prevalence of vago-or sympathic).


Children with typical vagotonia many hypochondriacal complaints, fatigue, decreased performance, impaired memory, sleep disturbances (difficulty falling asleep, sleepiness), apathy, indecision, fearfulness, tendency to depression.

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Characterized by reduced appetite, coupled with excess body weight, poor tolerance to cold intolerance stuffy room, a sense of chilliness, a feeling of lack of air, periodic deep breaths, feeling "a lump in my throat, and vestibular disorders, vertigo, pain in the legs (usually at night time), nausea, abdominal pain, unmotivated, marbling of the skin, acrocyanosis pronounced red dermographism, high flux, sebaceous excretions and a tendency to fluid retention, transient swelling under the eyes, frequent urination, hyperptyalism, spastic constipation, and allergic reactions.

Cardiovascular disorders manifest pain in the heart, bradyarrhythmia, the tendency to decrease blood pressure, increased heart size by reducing the tone of the heart muscle, subdued heart sounds. The ECG reveal sinus bradycardia (bradyarrhythmia), there are beats, prolongation of the interval P-Q (until atrioventricular block I-II degree), as well as the displacement of ST segment above the contour and an increase in wave amplitude T.


Children with sympathic inherent temperament, temper, mood variability, increased sensitivity to pain, quick distraction, distraction, and various neurotic state. They often complain of feeling hot, feeling the heartbeat. When sympathicotonia asthenic physique often watching against the backdrop of increased appetite, pallor, dry skin, pronounced white dermographism, cold extremities, numbness and paresthesia in them in the morning, unexplained fever, poor tolerance to heat, polyuria, atonic constipation. Respiratory disorders are absent, are not characteristic of vestibular. Cardiovascular disorders manifest a tendency to tachycardia and increased blood pressure at normal heart size and its loud colors. The ECG often reveal sinus tachycardia, shortening of the interval P-Q, the displacement of ST segment below the contour, flattened prong T.


With the prevalence of cardiovascular disorders in the complex of existing vegetative disorders is permissible to use the term "neurocirculatory dystonia. However, please note that cardiopsychoneurosis is an integral part of the broader concept of vegetative-vascular dystonia.