2010/06/08

Histamine

Trade name:
Histamine dihydrochloride

International name:
Histamine (Histamine)

Group Affiliation:
Diagnostic tool

Description of the active substance (INN):
Histamine

Dosage Form:
solution for subcutaneous injection

Mode of action:
Biogenic compounds formed in the body in the decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine, is a mediator involved in the regulation of vital body functions. The body is predominantly bound, inactive state. With anaphylactic shock, burns, frostbite, hay fever, hives and other conditions the amount of free histamine increases; stimulants histamine release are the d-tubocurarine, morphine, iodinated radiopaque drugs, macromolecular compounds, etc. Free histamine causes spasm of smooth muscles (including muscles of the bronchi ), the expansion of capillaries, reducing blood pressure, contributes to stagnation of blood in the capillaries and increased permeability of their walls, swelling of surrounding tissues. Reflex stimulates the adrenal medulla, facilitating the allocation of epinephrine, a narrowing of arterioles, increased heart rate. It stimulates the secretion of gastric juices. Contained in the CNS, plays the role of neurotransmitter (or neuromodulator). Allocate 3 subgroups of receptors: H1-, H2-and H3-histamine receptors. Excitation of peripheral H1-histamine receptors leads to reductions in spastic bronchial musculature of intestine, myometrium, increased capillary permeability; H2-histamine receptors - to stimulate acid production in the stomach, lower the tone of smooth muscles of the uterus, blood vessels. H3-histamine receptors are involved in the implementation of the influence of histamine on the central nervous system. As the drug has limited application, produced by bacterial breakdown of histidine or synthetic means. In allergic diseases, migraine, asthma, urticaria introduction of small, increasing doses to the acquisition of resistance to histamine and reduce susceptibility to allergic reactions.

Indications:
Diagnosis of gastric acidity, diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, feohromoblastomy (combined thropaphen test), polyarthritis, articular and muscular rheumatism, pain caused by lesion of peripheral nerves, sciatica, plexitis; allergic diseases, migraine, urticaria.

Contraindications:
Hypersensitivity, bronchial asthma, decompensated heart disease, expressed arterial hypo-or hypertension, pheochromocytoma, organic central nervous system disease, severe chronic renal failure, pregnancy, lactation, children's age.

Side effects:
Allergic reactions, headache, increased blood pressure, lower blood pressure (dizziness or fainting), nervousness, tachycardia, flushing of the skin, fever, convulsions, difficulty breathing, bronchospasm. In appointing the high-dose: cyanosis, blurred vision, shortness of breath, discomfort or chest pain, a sharp decline in blood pressure, marked diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps or stomach area, gastrointestinal dysfunction, similar to symptoms of peptic ulcer as a result of increased secretion of acid, "metal" taste, swelling and hyperemia at the injection site when n / to the introduction (triple response: erythematous rash + blister + inflammatory hyperemia). Overdosage. Symptoms: collapse, anaphylactic shock. Treatment: Maintain airway and the use of mechanical ventilation, oxygen, imposition of temporary wiring near the injection site to slow absorption into the blood, the introduction of antihistamine drugs, 0.3-0.5 mg of epinephrine to the solution for injection (1:1 th ) n / a for the treatment of BP reduction, if necessary, up to 2 times.

Dosage and administration:
Radiculitis, plexites - w / c, 0.2-0.3 ml of 0.1% solution; rheumatism - 0.1-0.5 ml of 1% solution, rubbing the ointment containing histamine, histamine electrophoresis. In allergic diseases begin with a / to the introduction of very small doses - 0.1 ml in a concentration of 1:10 million (0.1% solution of dilute appropriate amount of 0.9% solution of NaCl), then gradually increase the dose. For pharmacological diagnosis of gastric sokoobrazovaniya - n / a 0.1% rate of 0.1 ml/10 kg pheochromocytoma and feohromoblastomy - hold a combined thropaphen test.